Technical Report

Facilitating COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and uptake in the EU/EEA

October 15, 2021

This technical report presents considerations for European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries when diagnosing barriers to acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and designing and implementing interventions to increase uptake. The report uses the ‘5Cs’ model (Confidence, Constraints, Complacency, Calculation, and Collective Responsibility) to organize and explain the various causes of low vaccination acceptance and uptake and to categorize potential interventions. The framework discusses the facilitation of COVID-19 vaccination for the general population, as well as specific population groups (e.g.; healthcare workers, socio-economically vulnerable populations, and parents and caregivers). The report highlights the importance of diagnosing the drivers of sub-optimal vaccine acceptance and uptake in a given population to ensure that appropriate interventions are implemented in response. It also presents examples of interventions that have been implemented in the EU/EEA, any of which could be adapted for use in other settings where similar drivers of low vaccination uptake have been identified. Finally, the report discusses the importance of evaluating interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake, as well as some of the challenges associated with such evaluations. Resources for diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation that may be used by EU/EEA countries are also included in the report.